The Department of Anesthesiology’s mission is to “provide better care tomorrow,” through state-of-the-art, high-quality perioperative anesthesiology, pain management and critical care for our patients. Through interprofessional collaborations with our colleagues at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, we leverage our energy to inform decisions in clinical operations, education and quality improvement to continually elevate our patient care at Montefiore.

Our national and international collaborations enable us to contribute to the progress of perioperative medicine around the world through multicentric studies that can be generalized to patients anywhere undergoing surgical procedures or with critical illnesses that require immediate treatment. Our clinical research is the direct consequence of our colleagues’ experience in the operating room and the intensive care unit.

We use the generation and analysis of highly granular pharmaco-physiological patient data to understand the effects of new medications on patients’ recovery from surgery or critical illness. We regroup, validate, and utilize available health care data from more than 1 million patients who underwent surgery at Montefiore or at one of our collaborating health care networks including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center of Boston. This powerful information helps us identify rare complications – and is the foundation for individualized perioperative treatment. We then confirm our results through clinical studies, improving the efficacy and future implementation of promising treatment strategies.

Basic Science and Pediatric Anesthesiology Research

As a graduate of the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) at Montefiore Einstein, Dr. Jerry Chao designed prospective studies of the effects of anesthesia on infants’ developing brains and parental perceptions of commonly employed anesthetic techniques, particularly regional anesthesia, for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Dr. Chao’s NIH-supported research focuses on obtaining and interpreting the non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) during general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia. He collaborates with and receives mentorship from a multidisciplinary team with expertise in epidemiology, pediatric neurology, biostatistics and computational neuroscience. We work with national experts as well as our own Department of neurosurgery to better understand the mechanisms of sleep and anesthesia in infants and children.

Contact Information


Jerry Y. Chao, MD, MS
Pediatric Anesthesiologist
Associate Professor of Anesthesiology


Clinical and Observational Research

How can we create an optimal treatment plan to minimize the risk of a stroke after surgery? Which patients are at high risk and should receive a new treatment? Our digital health databases allow us to answer these questions in a standardized manner and test hypotheses around potentially improved treatments.

During the last 15 years, we have established and validated hospital registries in Boston and New York City. These databases are unique since they provide a granular picture of patients’ perioperative risks. These risks are analyzed based on patients’ comorbidities, medications, and the severity of the primary diseases leading to hospital admission and surgery. The database records also allow us to integrate information about any added risks based on the surgical procedure performed. For example, did the patient have a major bleeding complication? Did the patient develop heart problems, low blood pressure, or a pulmonary complication during the operation? Was the patient admitted to the intensive care unit?

One of our team’s primary research focuses is interprofessional quality improvement. A current project in collaboration with Dr. Jeff Freda, Vice Chair of Perioperative Medicine, and Dr. Richard Smith, Chair of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, has resulted in a decreased risk of case cancellations. Case cancellations are unpleasant for patients who were scheduled to receive a procedure. Further, same-day cancellations reduce utilization of operating rooms, affect surgeon productivity and staff morale, and result in extra costs for patients, physicians, and hospitals.

As such, our Research team developed a never-before used automated tool to help determine which patients are at high-risk for case cancellation. In collaboration with Surgical Services and the Pre-Anesthesia Testing team, we then work to mitigate these cancellations by providing interventions that allow patients to get the treatment they need on time. These interventions include consultations with patients who have a history of anxiety disorder as well as arranging free transportation to and from the hospital for those that have a barrier to accessing transportation.


Contact Information


Frances F. Foldes Professor and Chair, Department
of Anesthesiology
Professor, Department of Anesthesiology


Clinical Trials

The Department of Anesthesiology provides support for faculty, residents, students, and pharmaceutical sponsors conducting research within the field of anesthesiology and its subspecialties at Montefiore and the Albert Einstein School of Medicine. During the last 18 months, the Department of Anesthesiology started enrolling participants in nine randomized controlled trials, four of which are supported by the National Institutes of Health.

Our clinical research core assists with study design, protocol development, contract executions, budget development, data collection, and statistical analysis. The team works as a liaison between subspecialties within the department and other research organizations at Montefiore Einstein. Our staff is experienced in preparing IRB applications, preparing informed consents, submitting amendments, and fulfilling other various IRB and research requirements. Our clinical trial staff support researchers on how to obtain assistance from the Montefiore Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR) facilities such as the Montefiore Office of Clinical Trials (OCT), the Clinical Research Center (CRC), and the Biostatistics and Study Design Department. The OCT assists investigators in budget negotiations, contract executions, invoicing for services, subject recruitment, and retention planning. The CRC provides a space for expert staff to conduct outpatient research studies and assists in collecting, processing, and shipping biological specimens. The Biostatistics and Study Design Department offers expertise in designing complex study protocols and providing analytical solutions for preparing manuscripts.


Contact Information


Timothy Pulverenti, PhD
Director of Clinical Research



Recent Department Publications


Association of dexmedetomidine use with haemodynamics, postoperative recovery, and cost in paediatric anaesthesia: a hospital registry study
DOI: April 16, 2024

Omid Azimaraghi, Maíra I. Rudolph, Can M. Luedeke, Tina Ramishvili, Giselle D. Jaconia, Flora T. Scheffenbichler, Terry-Ann Chambers, Ibraheem M. Karaye, Matthias Eikermann, Jerry Chao, William M. Jackson


Hispanic/Latino Ethnicity and Loss of Post-Surgery Independent Living: A Retrospective Cohort Study from a Bronx Hospital Network
Anesthesia & Analgesia, DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000006948 March 05, 2024

Witt AS, Rudolph MI, Sterling FD, Azimaraghi O, Wachtendorf LJ, Montilla Medrano E, Joseph V, Akeju O, Wongtangman K, Straker T, Karaye IM, Houle TT, Eikermann M, Aguirre-Alarcon A; Health Outcomes and Perioperative Equity (HOPE) Group Investigators Writing Committee. Hispanic/Latino Ethnicity and Loss of Post-Surgery Independent Living: A Retrospective Cohort Study from a Bronx Hospital Network.


Improving management of ARDS: uniting acute management and long-term recovery
PMCID: PMC10893724, PMID: 38395902, DOI: 10.1186/s13054-024-04810-9 Feb 23, 2024

Latronico N, Eikermann M, Ely EW, Needham DM


The effect of a bundle intervention for ambulatory otorhinolaryngology procedures on same-day case cancellation rate and associated costs
PMID: 38353045 DOI: 10.1111/anae.16247 Feb 14, 2024

Wongtangman K, Semczuk P, Freda J, Smith RV, Pushparaj V, Beckham D, Aasman B, Rudolph MI, Salloum E, Kiyatkin M, Anand P, Ganz-Lord FA, Himes C, Fassbender P, Eikermann M


Association of reintubation and hospital costs and its modification by postoperative surveillance: A multicenter retrospective cohort study December, 2023

Maíra I. Rudolph, Omid Azimaraghi, Elie Salloum, Luca J. Wachtendorf, Aiman Suleiman, Tobias Kammerer, Maximilian S. Schaefer, Matthias Eikermann, Michael E. Kiyatkin


Restrictive versus unrestrictive use of sugammadex for reversal of rocuronium: a decision analysis
DOI: February 2024

Charles J. Lin, Matthias Eikermann, Aman Mahajan, Kenneth J. Smith


Association of ketamine use during procedural sedation with oxygen desaturation and healthcare utilisation: a multicentre retrospective hospital registry study
DOI: April, 2024

Elie Salloum, Eva Lotte Seibold, Omid Azimaraghi, Maíra I. Rudolph, Juliane Beier, Maximilian S. Schaefer, William J. Sauer, Christopher Tam, Philipp Fassbender, Michael Kiyatkin, Matthias Eikermann, Karuna Wongtangman


Illness Weakness, Polyneuropathy and Myopathy: Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcomes
PMID: 37957759 PMCID: PMC10644573 DOI: 10.1186/s13054-023-04676-3 Nov 13, 2023

Latronico N, Rasulo FA, Eikermann M, Piva S


The impact of residency training level on early postoperative desaturation: A retrospective multicenter cohort study Published: November, 2023

Juliane Beier, Elena Ahrens, Michael Rufino, Jashvin Patel, Omid Azimaraghi, Vivek Kumar, Timothy T. Houle, Maximilian S. Schaefer, Matthias Eikermann, Karuna Wongtangman


Propofol-Based Anesthesia Maintenance and/or Volatile Anesthetics during Intracranial Aneurysm Repair: A Comparative Analysis of Neurological Outcomes
PMID: 37959418 PMCID: PMC10648155 DOI: 10.3390/jcm12216954 November 6, 2023

Esmaeeli S, Motayagheni N, Bastos Brenes A, Ogilvy CS, Thomas AJ, Pollard R, Buhl LK, Baker MB, Phan S, Hassan O, Fehnel CR, Eikermann M, Shaefi S, Nozari A.


Complications of Spinal Cord Stimulators-A Comprehensive Review Article
PMID: 37855944 DOI: 10.1007/s11916-023-01178-3 October 19, 2023

Koushik SS, Raghavan J, Saranathan S, Slinchenkova K, Viswanath O, Shaparin N.


Development and validation of a machine learning ASA-score to identify candidates for comprehensive preoperative screening and risk stratification August, 2023

Karuna Wongtangman, Boudewijn Aasman, Shweta Garg, Annika S. Witt, Arshia A. Harandi, Omid Azimaraghi, Parsa Mirhaji, Selvin Soby, Preeti Anand, Carina P. Himes, Richard V. Smith, Peter Santer, Jeffrey Freda, Matthias Eikermann, Priya Ramaswamy


Development of an automated, general-purpose prediction tool for postoperative respiratory failure using machine learning: A retrospective cohort study
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 2023-11-01, Volume 90, Article 111194

Michael E. Kiyatkin MD, Boudewijn Aasman BS, Melissa J. Fazzari PhD, Maíra I. Rudolph MD, Marcos F. Vidal Melo MD/PhD, Matthias Eikermann MD/PhD and Michelle N. Gong MD, MS


Multimodal, patient-centred symptom control: a strategy to replace sedation in the ICU
DOI: May 12, 2023

Matthias Eikermann, Dale M Needham, John W Devlin



Research Programs

Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research (FAER) – Summer Program

The Medical Student Anesthesia Research Fellowship Summer Program provides students with a challenging and rewarding experience that exposes them to the opportunities within the medical field of anesthesiology and research.

Medical students who participate in the summer anesthesia research fellowship can expect:

  • Eight weeks of focused research related to anesthesiology.
  • A dedicated mentor who will provide guidance and training in research techniques and scientific methods.
  • The opportunity to make a scientific poster presentation at the American Society of Anesthesiologists annual meeting, during the FAER MSARF Symposium.
  • A $400 per week student stipend, ASA student membership dues, plus additional funds to help cover the costs of travel to the ASA meeting.

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Education and Research Program

Dr. Alexander Bastien and Dr. Tracey Straker have worked with Dean Kerrigan, Dean of Admissions at AECOM, to formalize a mentoring program for African American and Latin students. This initiative includes recruitment, mentor/mentee pairs, virtual and in-person meetings, and a structured plan of action from student acceptance until graduation.

ASA Mentoring Grants/Research received in department 2021:

  • Alex Bastien, MD and Terry-Ann Chambers, MD – Tackling Inequities in Perioperative Healthcare Delivery – “there’s an app for that!”
  • Sujatha Ramachandran, MD, MACM and Camille Fontaine, MD – Enhancing Recruitment Processes to Facilitate a Diverse Work Force
  • Shamantha Reddy, MD, FASA and Karen Paltoo, MD – COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among Healthcare Workers- Does Age, gender, level of education, occupation and racial /ethnic background play a role?
  • Adela Aguirre-Alarcon, MD, MS and Felix Dailey Sterling, MD – The Association Between a Patient’s Race and Ethnicity and the Loss of the Ability to Live Independently after Surgery - A hospital Registry from a healthcare network in the Bronx

ASA Mentoring Grants Received in 2022:

  • Vilma Joseph, MD - A National Medical Student Mentoring Program and Microaggression Leadership Program to Nurture and Empower the Next Generation of Underrepresented Anesthesiologists
  • Yelena Spitzer, MD - Building a Pipeline for Mentorship Amongst Female Anesthesiologists: From Medical School and Up
Contact Information


Tracey Straker, M.D.
Vice Chair of Clinical Operations
Director of ASA Mentoring Grant

Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP)

Since 2011, the Montefiore-Einstein Anesthesiology Department has sponsored at least one junior faculty in the mentored research training, funded through the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Through these and other funding mechanisms, Anesthesiology faculty are enrolled in and have graduated from Master of Science programs in Public Health and Business Administration at Columbia University, Georgia Tech and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

We are actively seeking qualified faculty and fellows to continue this initiative.

Current Enrolled Faculty
Michael E. Kiyatkin, MD, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Faculty Alumni
Jerry Chao, MD, MS (2016), Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Adela Aguirre-Alarcon, MD (2016), Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Cardiothoracic Fellowship Research Program

The Division of Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology are active educators and researchers in the areas of perioperative echocardiography, blood management, point of care testing, mechanical assist devices, neuromonitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass, and remote patient monitoring (RPM). In 2020, Dr. Jonathan Leff received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) catalytic grant for the study of RPM in COVID-19 patients. In addition, Dr. Leff was P.I. at Montefiore for the Transfusion Requirements In Cardiac Surgery (TRICS III) trial, a multicenter international randomization transfusion trial funded by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) and will be participating in the upcoming TRICS IV trial.  Moreover, funded research is ongoing through collaboration with Edwards Lifesciences for data collection on predicting right ventricular failure.

Contact Information


Jonathan D. Leff, MD, FASE
Chair, Cardiothoracic Anesthesia
Vice Chair of Professional Affairs