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anthocyanidin, anthocyanadins, anthocyanin, celphinidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin
Proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins are chemical compounds that give many plants, especially fruit or flowers, their red, blue, or purple colors. Even before anthocyanins were recognized as anti-cancer and health-promoting agents, they were studied extensively for their importance as plant pigments. While anthocyanins are responsible for the reds, blues, and purples, the closely related flavonols and flavones (other cancer-preventing pigments) are responsible for the yellow and ivory colors seen in many flowers.
Anthocyanidins belong to a group of compounds called polyphenols, which in turn belong to a subclass called flavonoids.
Food sources of anthocyanidins include red and black grapes (grape skin contains polyphenols [anthocyanins and leucoanthocyanins], while grape seeds contain proanthocyanidins), red wine, bilberries, cranberries, strawberries, blueberries, red cabbage, and apple peel. Sources of proanthocyanidins are pine bark, grape seeds, leaves of the bilberry bush, birch, and ginkgo biloba.
Medically valid uses
Although significant research is being done to determine the health benefits of anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins, concrete proof is not yet available for some aspects of their reported health-giving benefits. However, it is known that a diet rich in vegetables and fruit reduces the risk for many types of cancer and other age-related problems.
Please note that this section reports on claims that have NOT yet been substantiated through scientific studies.
Anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins are believed to possibly protect the heart and cardiovascular system, function as antioxidants, inhibit the formation of nitrosamines, and protect healthy cells from their mutagenic effects, work with vitamin C to block nitrosamines from forming, decrease risk for developing breast cancer, and reduce risk of blood clot formation (which may be an important factor in reducing risk for heart attack).
There is no firmly established dose for proanthocyanidins.
Suggested daily dosages range from 20 to 200 mg, the most typical dose being 150 to 200 mg.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult a physician before taking any dietary supplements.
Side effects, toxicity, and interactions
There are no known side effects or significant food or drug interactions associated with proanthocyanidins.
Click here for a list of reputable websites with general information on nutrition.
Online ResourcesU.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=5843
Up to Date: Grape Seed: Natural Drug Information http://www.uptodate.com/contents/grape-seed-natural-drug-information?view=print